Infertility is the inability to conceive a child even after trying for a longer duration of time. If the couple is sexually active and has tried for approximately 1 year without any birth control measures then infertility can be the underlying cause but some forms of infertility are curable by undergoing medical treatment.
The general process is that during ovulation, women release an egg from her ovaries and then the egg passes through the fallopian tube to the uterus. Man’s sperm fertilizes the egg and then the fertilized egg is implanted inside the uterus. Failure in any of the step of the following process can be the reason for infertility
There are basically three types of infertility
Primary infertility occurs when the couple is having intercourse for 1 year without luck and there is no history of any previous pregnancy or expected pregnancy. The women never had a positive result and there are no miscarriages too. This can be due to the failure of the completion of any process mentioned above. The other underlying reason can be low sperm count, anatomical or biological diseases, fallopian tube scarring, scarring from sexually transmitted infections (STIs), injury, or surgery erectile dysfunction or even impotence
Secondary infertility occurs when the couple is trying to become pregnant following the birth of one or more children without any assisted reproductive measures and is unsuccessful in their attempt.
There can be several reasons behind secondary infertility. Some of the reasons can be any sort of complication in the reproductive system of both male and female which can involve a decrease in ovarian reserve, fallopian tube abnormality, pelvic disorder, Uterine abnormalities from the female side and decrease in sperm quality and quantity from the male side. Weight gain can also impact infertility which can cause erectile dysfunction in men and ovulatory dysfunction in women
Unexplained infertility reasons are unknown. It is not the cause that there is no underlying reason behind unexplained infertility but the detection process is so complicated that it is unable to diagnose the root of the issue.
If all the test carried are normal like uterus is normal, there is blockage in the fallopian tube, sperm count is also normal and quality is good, anti-Mullerian range is normal, women are ovulating, and hormonal balance is maintained, the couple is having sexual intercourse when the women are ovulating and all other body masses, weight, age index are normal then this type falls under the category of unexplained infertility
The causes of unexplained infertility can be some genetic abnormalities in the sperm. In such abnormality DNA sequences contain some error which leads to failure of the fertilization process. DNA fragmentation test is carried out to screen this abnormality. While on the female side the genetic mutations in the egg increases which reduces the egg quality and can result in unexplained infertility. Another reason can be the abnormal development or poor quality of embryos. When the fertilization process carried out in the laboratory then the embryo's development is observed and the embryos whose cells are not symmetric or not growing at normal pace are considered poor-quality embryos. Another underlying reason can be a failure in the implantation step. A receptive endometrium is required in order to attach to the uterine lining in case of failure the chances of pregnancy decreases and can ultimately lead to unexplained fertility
Other general causes of Infertility can be Ovulation disorders, Tubal blockage, Uterine fibroids, Endometrial polyps and there can be some malefactors which are affecting the functioning of the sperms
The treatments that occur for any type of infertility are In Vitro Fertilization (IVF), third party reproduction, surgery or even education in some cases. Infertility is curable, there is no need to be disappointed. We as humans generally expect to have control on the baby-making plans. The infertility diagnosis can be surprising and shocking for the couples but undergoing the treatment can resolve most of the problems. There are many ways to achieve what you are desiring ad medication and undergoing the treatment can resolve most of the issues. Many couples are even able to conceive after unexplained pregnancy. So, hang in there and do not lose hope.